ZFS Resilver Observations

As it has been discussed on the ZFS mailing list recently (subscribe here), I figured I would post my most recent observations on resilver performance.

My home server is an HP MicroProliant N36L (soon to be an N54L) with 8GB RAM, a Marvell based eSATA card (I forget which one), and a StarTech 4-drive external enclosure (which uses port multipliers). The system is running FreeBSD 9.1-RELEASE-p7.

The zpool in question is a 5 drive RAIDz2 made up of 1TB drives, a mix of Seagate and HGST. Note that drives ada0 through ada2 are in the external enclosure and ada3 through ada6 are internal to the system. So ada0 – ada2 are behind the port multiplier and ada3 – ada6 each have individual SATA ports.

One of the HGST drives failed and I swapped in a convenient 2TB HGST I had for another project that has not started yet. Normally I have a hot spare, but I have yet to RMA the last failed drive and bicycle the hot spare back in. So the current state is a RAIDz2 resilvering.

# zpool status export
  pool: export
 state: DEGRADED
status: One or more devices is currently being resilvered.  The pool will
	continue to function, possibly in a degraded state.
action: Wait for the resilver to complete.
  scan: resilver in progress since Fri Aug  1 13:41:48 2014
        248G scanned out of 2.84T at 57.1M/s, 13h14m to go
        49.4G resilvered, 8.53% done
config:

	NAME                       STATE     READ WRITE CKSUM
	export                     DEGRADED     0     0     0
	  raidz2-0                 DEGRADED     0     0     0
	    replacing-0            UNAVAIL      0     0     0
	      3166455989486803094  UNAVAIL      0     0     0  was /dev/ada5p1
	      ada6p1               ONLINE       0     0     0  (resilvering)
	    ada5p1                 ONLINE       0     0     0
	    ada4p1                 ONLINE       0     0     0
	    ada2p1                 ONLINE       0     0     0
	    ada1p1                 ONLINE       0     0     0

errors: No known data errors
#

As expected the missing drive is being replaced by the new drive. Here are some throughput numbers from zpool iostat -v 60:

                              capacity     operations    bandwidth
pool                       alloc   free   read  write   read  write
-------------------------  -----  -----  -----  -----  -----  -----
export                     2.84T  1.69T    291     37  35.6M   163K
  raidz2                   2.84T  1.69T    291     37  35.6M   163K
    replacing                  -      -      0    331      0  12.0M
      3166455989486803094      -      -      0      0      0      0
      ada6p1                   -      -      0    207      0  12.0M
    ada5p1                     -      -    227      9  11.9M  53.4K
    ada4p1                     -      -    236      9  11.9M  53.6K
    ada2p1                     -      -    195      9  11.9M  53.8K
    ada1p1                     -      -    197      9  11.9M  53.8K
-------------------------  -----  -----  -----  -----  -----  -----

                              capacity     operations    bandwidth
pool                       alloc   free   read  write   read  write
-------------------------  -----  -----  -----  -----  -----  -----
export                     2.84T  1.69T    292     29  35.5M   127K
  raidz2                   2.84T  1.69T    292     29  35.5M   127K
    replacing                  -      -      0    321      0  11.9M
      3166455989486803094      -      -      0      0      0      0
      ada6p1                   -      -      0    206      0  11.9M
    ada5p1                     -      -    225      9  11.9M  40.3K
    ada4p1                     -      -    235      9  11.9M  40.1K
    ada2p1                     -      -    196      9  11.9M  40.2K
    ada1p1                     -      -    196      8  11.9M  40.2K
-------------------------  -----  -----  -----  -----  -----  -----

                              capacity     operations    bandwidth
pool                       alloc   free   read  write   read  write
-------------------------  -----  -----  -----  -----  -----  -----
export                     2.84T  1.69T    276     31  33.1M   114K
  raidz2                   2.84T  1.69T    276     31  33.1M   114K
    replacing                  -      -      0    305      0  11.1M
      3166455989486803094      -      -      0      0      0      0
      ada6p1                   -      -      0    197      0  11.1M
    ada5p1                     -      -    211      7  11.1M  35.0K
    ada4p1                     -      -    221      7  11.1M  35.0K
    ada2p1                     -      -    181      7  11.1M  35.0K
    ada1p1                     -      -    183      7  11.1M  34.8K
-------------------------  -----  -----  -----  -----  -----  -----

And here are some raw disk drive numbers from iostat -x -w 60:

                        extended device statistics  
device     r/s   w/s    kr/s    kw/s qlen svc_t  %b  
ada0       0.0   0.0     0.0     0.0    0   0.0   0 
ada1     211.7   9.2 10038.9    48.4    0   2.2  19 
ada2     209.4   9.1 10038.9    48.2    0   2.3  19 
ada3       0.0   4.0     0.0    23.7    0   0.2   0 
ada4     240.9   9.1 10041.6    48.3    0   0.8   9 
ada5     233.1   9.1 10041.1    48.2    0   0.9  11 
ada6       0.0 176.4     0.0  9994.3    4  18.5  85 
                        extended device statistics  
device     r/s   w/s    kr/s    kw/s qlen svc_t  %b  
ada0       0.0   0.0     0.0     0.0    0   0.0   0 
ada1     191.2   7.6  9472.1    33.5    0   3.6  26 
ada2     189.2   7.4  9474.6    33.5    0   3.9  27 
ada3       0.0   3.8     0.0    27.9    0   0.2   0 
ada4     220.1   7.5  9475.1    33.3    0   1.4  13 
ada5     222.5   7.4  9476.8    33.4    0   1.1  12 
ada6       0.0 170.2     0.0  9460.4    4  18.7  83 
                        extended device statistics  
device     r/s   w/s    kr/s    kw/s qlen svc_t  %b  
ada0       0.0   0.0     0.0     0.0    0   0.0   0 
ada1     224.5   6.4  9949.5    20.5    2   2.0  19 
ada2     221.4   6.4  9950.6    20.3    2   2.2  20 
ada3       0.0   4.5     0.0    35.6    0   0.2   0 
ada4     249.6   6.3  9947.8    20.5    1   0.8  10 
ada5     243.7   6.3  9947.7    20.5    2   0.8  11 
ada6       0.0 172.4     0.0  9875.7    3  19.1  86 

Do not try to correlate the numbers as the samples were taken at different times, but the general picture of the resilver is fairly accurate. The zpool is about 62% full:

# zpool list 
NAME       SIZE  ALLOC   FREE    CAP  DEDUP  HEALTH  ALTROOT
export    4.53T  2.84T  1.69T    62%  1.00x  DEGRADED  -
#

So the resilver is limited by roughly the performance of one of the five drives in the RAIDz2 zpool. About 10 MB/sec and 170 I/Ops RANDOM performance is not bad for a single 7,200 RPM SATA drive. I have been told by those smarter than I not to expect more than about 100 I/Ops random I/O from a single spindle so 170 seems like a win.

What all was said and done, this was the final result:

# zpool status export
  pool: export
 state: ONLINE
  scan: resilvered 580G in 16h55m with 0 errors on Sat Aug  2 06:37:02 2014
config:

	NAME        STATE     READ WRITE CKSUM
	export      ONLINE       0     0     0
	  raidz2-0  ONLINE       0     0     0
	    ada6p1  ONLINE       0     0     0
	    ada5p1  ONLINE       0     0     0
	    ada4p1  ONLINE       0     0     0
	    ada2p1  ONLINE       0     0     0
	    ada1p1  ONLINE       0     0     0

errors: No known data errors
#

So it took almost 17 hours to resilver 580GB which is the amount of data + parity + metadata on one of the five drives in the RAIDz2. The total amount of space allocated is 2.84TB as shown in the zpool list above.

Your mileage may vary…

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1 Response

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